In the course of excavations in Ephesus Ancient City, many fountains belonging to different periods were unearthed. The springs which supplied water to the houses and the fountains were far from the city. Wells and cisterns also supplied water to the city. The springs at Keltepe and Kenchiros (Degirmendere) located south of Kusadasi, are 42.5 km. from Ephesus. Following a route which runs by the western foot of Bulbul Dagi, two Ephesus aqueducts built of stone blocks bring water to Ephesus. One of these is 0.8 metres wide and 0.9 metres high, and the other is 0.65 metres wide and 0.45 metres high. The water runs at a rate of 61 litres per second.
The Klaseas (Pranga) Spring on the road to Izmir is another source. The water from here was brought to St. John Hill by an aqueduct 10 km. long. The Aqueduct was built like an open canal, either carved into the rocks or supported by stone walls. These stone walls formed arches in certain places.
Here, the water runs at a rate of 9 litres per second. Water to the Temple of Artemis was brought from the Selinus Spring in Sirince Koy. The 8 km. long aqueduct stretches all the way to the Artemision. During the excavations at the Artemision, thick lead pipes were discovered, and one of these is on display in the Ephesus Museum.
The source of water of the large Fountain located by the side of the street to the south of the Agora is the spring known today as the Marnas Suyu (Spring) which is still quite popular. Remains of the Ephesus aqueduct called Sexilius Pollio Duct, seen at the 6th kilometre of the Selcuk-Aydin road belong to this spring. The water runs at a rate of 4.2 litres per second.
The Nymphaeum was constructed between the years 4 and 14 A.D. and it was planned in accordance with the street in front of it. Later, it was modified many times and attained its final form in the 4th century. During this period the facade of the fountain of Pollio was decorated with statues of emperors and distinguished Ephesians.
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